Latest Technology News

Friday, September 12, 2014

Editing ALL rows in MS SQL Server Management Studio 2008

After I upgraded from Microsoft SQL Server 2005 to 2008, one of the first changes that I noticed was the menu that appears when you right-click on a table was missing my beloved ‘Open Table’ option. In the 2005 version, I was able to click this option and my table would open up all the rows in it. This option was replaced by an “Edit top 200 rows” in the 2008 version.

While this is all well and good, why go through the trouble of clicking the “Edit top 200 rows”, and then have to modify the query to have it return all rows? To get rid of the “Edit Top 200 Rows”, go to Tools > Options > SQL Server Object Explorer and in the “Table and View Options“, change the following:

- Value for Edit Top Rows command = 0
- Value for Select Top Rows command = 0

Hit OK.....

And there you have it. When you right-click a table, you will see the option for “Edit All Rows”.

If you have any questions feel free to send an email to  

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Top 10 Internet Marketing Strategies

Internet marketing can attract more people to your website, increase customers for your business, and enhance branding of your company and products. If you are just beginning your online marketing strategy the top 10 list below will get you started on a plan that has worked for many.

1. Start with a web promotion plan and an effective web design and development strategy.
2. Get ranked at the top in major search engines, and practice good Search Optimization Techniques.
3. Learn to use Email Marketing Effectively.
4. Dominate your marketing niche with affiliate, reseller, and associate programs.
5. Request an analysis from an Internet marketing coach or Internet marketing consultant.
6. Build a responsive opt-in email list.
7. Publish articles or get listed in news stories.
8. Write and publish online press releases.
9. Facilitate and run contests and giveaways via your web site.
10. Blog and interact with your visitors.

By following the above tips you'll be on your way to creating a concrete internet marketing strategy that could boost your business substantially.

If you have any questions feel free to send an email to  

Friday, October 18, 2013

HTML Mailers Image Gaps in Gmail

Have you noticed Gmail creates gaps between your images in the beautiful HTML MAILERS?
Now No Worries… I have created a great solution to resolve it. 

Just use this code in image tag : <style>img {display:block}</style>

For example:

<img style=”display:block” src=”Rajesh_goutam.jpg” alt=”sample” />

If you have any questions feel free to send an email to  

Friday, September 27, 2013

T-Commerce - The new way to sell

T-Commerce, or in other words, Tablet Commerce is a digital point of sale that lets you sell your products, in store and on foot, with greater ease and convenience. This new wave, that is revolutionizing the customer-retailer relationship, will not only increase your reach and sale but also your customers' satisfaction.

Why T-Commerce?
• Assisted Selling for retail stores
• Sales Automation
• Reduced lead closure time

T-Commerce Solutions/Components
• Virtual Assistant
• Product Customization
• Digital Catalog
• Digital Signature (no need to maintain physical copies of signed receipts )

More topics are available on my blog:

Saturday, September 7, 2013

Character limit for Facebook

Character limits for the headline and text of Facebook Ads:  
25 characters for the headline and 90 characters for the body text.
Character limit for Facebook posts:  
5,000 characters

Maximum length of a Facebook username: 
50 characters

More topics are available on my blog:

Saturday, August 31, 2013

India is now world’s third largest Internet user after U.S., China

Now the India has crossed the Japan to become the world’s third largest Internet user after China and the United States, and its users are significantly younger than those of other emerging economies, global digital measurement and analytics report. India now has nearly 74 million Internet users, a 31 per cent increase over March 2012.

China has the world’s biggest online presence; Its Internet users out number Indians by a ratio of 5: 1. Brazil’s Internet presence grew faster than India’s over the last year. Online retail is on the rise, with domestic retail sites being the most popular, the report notes. For online travel websites too, domestic websites are the most popular, the Indian Railways’ website being by far the most popular destination. Yahoo is also the most popular site for news.

More topics are available on my blog:

Wednesday, June 12, 2013

What is Google NCR?

The World Largest search engine (my favorite Search Engine) Google offers country-specific sites. When you enter "" in the address bar, you are automatically redirected to the site most appropriate for the country from which you are visiting Google. An example if you are trying to open in India it’s redirected to you on If you don't want to go automatically to a country site, Google offers an alternative Web address for, and this address ends in "/ncr."

More topics are available on my website:

Monday, May 27, 2013


Facebook helps you connect and share with the people in your life. Thanks Facebook to connect us Online, But we are still disconnected offline….

Friday, May 17, 2013

Redirect HTTP to HTTPS - Superb Solution with Gloabal.asax

You can achieve this using "Gloabal.asax"..try this code..
protected void Application_BeginRequest(Object sender, EventArgs e)
if ( !Request.IsSecureConnection)
string path = string.Format("https{0}", Request.Url.AbsoluteUri.Substring(4));

More topics are available on my blog:

Sunday, February 24, 2013

Important note for web designers!

It is a well recognized fact among web presenters that the upper-left corner is the most desirable position and it's where the eye tends to sink to. Why is this so? This is natural as in European countries people usually start reading books or writing articles from this position. 
Thus most Western websites and applications are mainly designed from the up-left corner. Here you can place a logo or slogan, search box or any other piece of information that you feel would benefit from such a position. 
Other psychological studies say that web information is in fact scanned in an "F" way. What does this mean? The top area is scanned horizontally, and the middle area and lower one is scanned only on the left side- vertically. So again please consider this research when arranging content for your website.

More topics are available on my blog:

Internet security

Imagine the capability of monitoring your business or valuable assets in Alaska while you are in Bangkok for holidays……
Online CCTV is best tool for travel lover Keep an eye on your home, office, cars, and valuables. Watch your pets. Watch your kids. Keep an eye on your nanny or babysitter. Best of all you can do this from any location in the world via internet!
Monitor your remote CCTV through Windows, Blackberry, Android and iPhone

More topics are available on my blog:

Saturday, February 16, 2013

Team Work...

All team members need to know that their contributions are noticed, that what they do makes a differences, and that they a valued part of their team.

Monday, November 26, 2012

10 Steps You Can Take To Become a Successful Young Leader at Work.

1. Start preparing before you enter the workforce
2. Do your homework
3. Take time to assess the culture of the organization
4. Keep a learner's mind
5. Identify areas where you can provide new insight or help
6. Offer your help
7. Do your work and abide by the rules
8. Communicate and connect
9. Give credit where credit is due
10. Establish relationships with superiors and find a mentor

know more about leadership, please contact me-

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

QR Code Easy and Latest Technology

QR Code - quick resource codes - QR Code is looks like a very small picture but it’s containing many more data. QR Code was invented in Japan. The QR Code creates by QR Code Generator and Its reads By QR Code Reader.
1. Square
2. It does contain any type of text data behind the code
3. Mostly advertisements companies are using it now to show company or business contact, website, price info.
4. The QR Generator and QR creator is completely available in many website or mostly in all mobile phone.
5. Commonly in consumer advertising and packaging.
6. It is latest technology because the popularity of smart phones "has put a barcode reader in everyone's pocket” for the first time. As a result, the QR Code has become a focus of advertising strategy, since it provides quick and effortless access to the brand's website
7. What Business Card? Just Scan My QR Code……………

I am using QR code in my website contact us page to show my website address:

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

In India, 1 in 4 Online Minutes are Spent on Social Networking Sites.

Google Sites, Facebook and Yahoo! Sites Lead as Top Destinations in India.

Top Online Destinations in India
In June 2012, Google Sites ranked as the top online destinations in India reaching 57.8 million people age 15 and older accessing the Internet from a home or work computer. followed with 50.9 million visitors (83.4 percent reach), followed by Yahoo! Sites (65.5 percent reach) and Microsoft Sites (48.1 percent reach). Local web properties secured several spots in the top 10 ranking, including Times Internet Limited, reaching 33.7 percent of the online population, Network 18 (29.3 percent reach), India Ltd (25.2 percent reach) and (21.8 percent reach).

Among the top properties, visitors were most engaged on, spending an average of nearly 4 hours on the site in June. Visitors spent 2.5 hours on Google Sites, with You Tube accounting for a strong share of time spent on the property. Among local brands, Network 18 led as the most engaging property with visitors averaging 31.6 minutes during the month.

Social Networking Leads as Top Online Activity in India
Analysis of the top online activities in India found that social networking accounted for 25.2 percent of all time spent online in June, an increase of 0.8 percentage points from the previous year, as social media continues to be a primary driver of people’s daily digital media consumption. Entertainment sites ranked second, accounting for 10 percent of minutes (up 1.2 percentage points from the previous year), while Portals accounted for 8.8 percent of total minutes. Although it represented just 2.0 percent of total minutes, time spent on Retail sites grew 0.5 points in the past year as online shopping continued to gain adoption.


Sunday, March 25, 2012

The Latest Mobile Web Facts and Figures...

The growth of the social networks over the last few years has been matched by the mobile internet with smart phones sales approaching nearly 500 million units in 2011. The synergy that these 2 fast tracking trends provide is changing how
we work and play.
So what are some statistics worth noting?

  • The smart phone sales were up over 63% in 2011 from 2010 (488.5 million)
  • 5.9 billion people now use mobile phones globally
  • Over 300,000 apps have been developed in the past 3 years and downloaded more than 10.9 Billion times
  • 77% use mobile phones for search
  • Social networking accounted for 50% of all page views on mobile phones in 2011
  • Face book mobile users quadrupled in 2 years from 50 million to 200 million
  • There are 200 million mobile video playbacks from You Tube every day
  • There are 1.2 billion internet connected smart phones

The upside for mobile commerce and smart phone growth is enormous as all mobile phones will eventually become internet connected. On current numbers that means that 4.7 billion smart phones are yet to be sold and connected! Is your business ready for the mobile web?


Tuesday, March 20, 2012

SQL SERVER – Disable Guest Account – Serious Security Issue

How can find out if the guest user account exists?
EXEC sp_MSforeachdb 'USE [?];
SELECT * FROM sysusers;'

How can remove/disable the guest user account?

Thursday, February 23, 2012

SQL Commands:

SQL commands are instructions used to communicate with the database to perform specific task that work with data. SQL commands can be used not only for searching the database but also to perform various other functions like, for example, you can create tables, add data to tables, or modify data, drop the table, set permissions for users. SQL commands are grouped into four major categories depending on their functionality:

Data Definition Language (DDL) - These SQL commands are used for creating, modifying, and dropping the structure of database objects. The commands are CREATE, ALTER, DROP, RENAME, and TRUNCATE.

Data Manipulation Language (DML) - These SQL commands are used for storing, retrieving, modifying, and deleting data. These commands are SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.

Transaction Control Language (TCL) - These SQL commands are used for managing changes affecting the data. These commands are COMMIT, ROLLBACK, and SAVEPOINT.

Data Control Language (DCL) - These SQL commands are used for providing security to database objects. These commands are GRANT and REVOKE.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

India now third biggest internet user

As per the News from Hindustan times with a user base of 100 million, the country now stands third in the world in terms of the number of people surfing the net, an official of internet search engine Google said in Kolkata on Tuesday. "China has the highest number of internet users at 300 million followed by the US with 207 million. India comes third with the number of internet users now soaring to 100 million," Vinay goel, head of products, Google India, told media persons. Of the internet users in the country, 40 million access the net through mobile phones.

"Our estimate is that by 2012, the number of mobile internet users will surpass those entering the net via their laptops or desktops. The number of mobile internet surfers in India is growing rapidly. In 2007, the country had only two million such users. Now the number has gone up 20 times," Goel said.

However, he pointed out that there was a massive scope of increasing the user base in the mobile internet space as the figure of 40 million comprises only eight percent of those carrying mobile phones.
Goel said that most of the internet users in the country search for songs.

Saturday, February 11, 2012

How To Stop Skype Changing Your Website Design

User this Meta Tags...

User this below tag in <>


Monday, February 6, 2012

How to do email marketing effectively?

Statistics show Tuesday and Wednesday are the most effective days to send out marketing emails. Send them out in the morning so that individuals have time to read them during breaks, lunch hours, and in the early evening.
Because Monday is week starting day so full day busy with imp Mails and imp Works.
Friday is last working day, its seems like busy day because have so many week target.
Thursday is second last day to complete imp task.
Tuesday, Wednesday Normal Working day, so little bit relax for mail read.

Friday, February 3, 2012

Adobe to end Flash support for mobile phones, tablets

A day after announcing it is laying off 750 workers, Adobe Systems Inc. sent out another news flash today: the San Jose company is ending development of its Flash multimedia software for mobile phone and tablet browsers.
In this Dec. 15, 2009 file photo, Adobe Systems Inc. headquarters in San Jose, Calif., is seen. Adobe Sytems, Inc. will report quarterly earnings after the market close Tuesday, March 23, 2010. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma, file)
Adobe is running up the flag of surrender in a mobile market battle exacerbated by Apple Inc.’s steadfast refusal to support Flash on the best selling iPhone and iPad.
And it’s a posthumous win for the late Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, who in April 2010 wrote an open letter calling Flash a proprietary battery hog that was ill-suited for modern mobile devices.
So after Adobe releases a new Flash Player 11.1 for Android devices and BlackBerry’s Playbook, “We will no longer continue to develop Flash Player in the browser to work with new mobile device configurations,” Adobe’s Danny Winokur wrote in a company blog.
“HTML5 is now universally supported on major mobile devices, in some cases exclusively,” wrote Winokur, Adobe’s vice president and general manager of interactive development. “This makes HTML5 the best solution for creating and deploying content in the browser across mobile platforms.”
It’s not the end of Flash, which Adobe took over after buying San Francisco’s Macromedia Inc. for $3.4 billion in 2005.
“These changes will allow us to increase investment in HTML5 and innovate with Flash where it can have most impact for the industry, including advanced gaming and premium video,” Winokur wrote. “Flash Player 11 for PC browsers just introduced dozens of new features, including hardware accelerated 3D graphics for console-quality gaming and premium HD video with content protection.”
As veteran tech journalist Harry McCracken wrote in his blog, Technologizer, Adobe’s surrender will be good for consumers in the long run. He said his own experiences with the mobile version of the Flash Player “has always ranged from unimpressive to excruciating.”
“Belatedly and reluctantly, Adobe has come to the conclusion that a similar approach makes sense for all mobile platforms,” McCracken said. “Apple’s customers simply got to the future first. Now everybody who uses mobile devices will be going there. And everybody’s going to be better off for it.”

Thursday, February 2, 2012

What does !important mean in CSS?

Cascading Style Sheets cascade. This means that the styles are applied in order as they are read by the browser. The first style is applied and then the second and so on. What this means is that if a style appears at the top of a style sheet and then is changed lower down in the document, the second instance of that style will be the one applied, not the first. For example, in the following style sheet, the paragraph text will be black, even though the first style property applied is red: 

p { color: #ff0000; }
 p { color: #000000; }
The !important rule is a way to make your CSS cascade but also have the rules you feel are most crucial always be applied. A rule that has the !important property will always be applied no matter where that rule appears in the CSS document. So if you wanted to make sure that a property always applied, you would add the !important property to the tag. So, to make the paragraph text always red, in the above example, you would write:
p { color: #ff0000 !important; }
 p { color: #000000; }

User Style Sheets

However, the !important rule was also put in place to help Web page users cope with style sheets that might make pages difficult for them to use or read. Typically, if a user defines a style sheet to view Web pages with, that style sheet will be over-ruled by the Web page author's style sheet. But if the user marks a style as !important, that style will overrule the Web page author's style sheet, even if the author marks their rule as !important.
This is a change from CSS1 to CSS2. In CSS1, author !important rules took precedence over user !important rules. CSS2 changed this to make the user's style sheet have precedence.

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

SQL Tips

You can determine what version SQL Server is running by running
Select @@version
@@Version is a system level variable that holds the current version. On my computer this returns
This information is pulled from the system extended procedure xp_msver. You can call this stored procedure like
exec master..xp_msver

Understanding SQL Server fixed server roles

SQL Server does indeed come with several built in fixed server roles. They are:
  • sysadmin
  • bulkadmin
  • dbcreator
  • diskadmin
  • processadmin
  • securityadmin
  • serveradmin
  • setupadmin
Let's look at each in turn.

I start with sysadmin out of order because it is the most important of all the server roles. Quite simply, if a login is a member of this role, it can do anything within the SQL Server. Moreover, it bypasses all security checks. So even if you are able to set up a scenario that should block a login from doing something, by nature of the login being a member of this role, it will ignore that restriction. As a result, membership in this role should be carefully controlled. In typical production environments you would only see DBAs being a member of this role. In very strict environments, you'll even see it restricted so that only particular DBAs within an organization have this level of access.
Because of the special nature of this role, let me also warn you that there is some inconsistency in how it is reported on with respect to other roles. Because the sysadmin role can do anything within the SQL Server, it has all the rights of the other roles and more. And that can make how you report on it a bit difficult to handle. You want to indicate what rights it has, but you also want to be very specific about who is in what server role. Therefore, you just have to know how the different structures report the information back. For instance, if you use the system function, IS_SRVROLEMEMBER(), and you specify a role other than sysadmin for a login that's a member of the sysadmin role, you'll get a "1" back, indicating that the login is a member. For instance:
However, if you check the membership using the sp_helpsrvrolemember system stored procedure, you won't get the same results. The login won't be shown as a member of the bulkadmin role. Also, if you query the sys.server_role_members catalog view, you also won't see it reported as a member of the bulkadmin role (or any other role, unless you've explicitly granted such).
Some things to take away with respect to this role (and we'll do this after each role):
  • This role can do anything within SQL Server.
  • This role completely bypasses all security checks.
  • This role can do everything any other role can do and more.
  • This is the most powerful role in SQL Server. Limit its access to only those who absolutely need it.

Bulk insert operations means taking data out of files and putting them into database tables and that means interacting with elements outside of SQL Server itself. As a result, SQL Server has broken out the ability to carry out bulk insert operations to ensure you only allow it when you intend to. And that's what this role does. Typically normal users do not need to be a member of this role. Only if they have to execute a BULK INSERT in their user context would they need such permission. If users are doing bulk insert operations, they need to be more than just a member of the bulkadmin role. They also need INSERT rights on the table(s) in question. So granting access to this role doesn't mean carte blanche ability to BULK INSERT into any table a user has access to. But typically, I've only granted this role to service accounts that are performing Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) type of operations, such as moving data from a source system into a data warehouse.
  • This role allows the import of data from external files.
  • Typically, this role isn't needed by normal users.
  • Even being a member of this role isn't enough. You also have to have INSERT rights on the table.
  • Members of the sysadmin role don't need to be a member of this role. Only use it when you have users or logins who need to do BULK INSERT operations who aren't already members of sysadmin.

As the name implies, this role allows a login the ability to create databases. Again, this is typically not something a normal user is a member of. In environments where you might have junior DBAs who aren't given full sysadmin rights, this is typically one of the roles which are used. The junior DBA has the ability to create databases in preparation for development teams and the like. I've also seen cases where a given application rolls over data into new databases on a periodic basis. In order to do so without intervention, the login the application is using needs the ability to create the new database. And that's an example where dbcreator comes in handy. One other point I'll make is that when a database is created, the owner of the database is the one who created it. That's an important thing to remember if you don't have some automated way of changing the owner automatically after the fact. The owner of a given database can do anything within that particular database. Therefore, that needs to be taken into consideration when you grant membership to this role.
  • This role allows creation of databases within SQL Server.
  • This is another role that should be rarely used.
  • It is an ideal role for a junior DBA to give him/her some control over SQL Server, but not the level of permission sysadmin grants.
  • Some applications will need to be a member of this role if they "roll over" databases as part of their operations.

This is a role that typically sees very little use in most environments. It has the ability to manage specified backup devices, but not much else. As a result, there's not much point in giving this out. So you should almost never see this used.
  • This role allows management of backup devices, which aren't used very much in SQL Server any more.
  • I have never seen this role used in practice because backup jobs are typically automated (or should be).

The processadmin server role has the ability to alter any connection. That basically means it can disconnect folks from SQL Server. Because it doesn't have much more than this capability, it's also a server role that's typically not used. However, because it can terminate a connection to SQL Server, it's a powerful server role. Therefore, if you do use it, make sure the logins which are members of this role are trustworthy. Someone with this role could effectively create a denial of service attack on your SQL Server by terminating connections as they come in.
  • This is a powerful role because it can kill connections to SQL Server.
  • This is another role that should be rarely used.
  • I have never seen this role used in practice because typically if connections are to be killed off, you want a fully trained DBA handling this, who are typically members of the sysadmin role.

As the name implies, this server role controls security for the SQL Server... to a point. This role allows a login to manage logins to SQL Server as far as granting/revoking, enabling/disabling, and determining what databases logins have access to. But once you cross that database boundary, a login without additional rights on the specific database can't manage permissions within the database. However, due to the fact that it can manage logins, it is a powerful role. I should also point out that a member of securityadmin can manage the other server roles with the exception of the sysadmin role. Therefore, membership in this role should be carefully controlled. This is another role you might see be given to junior DBAs where sysadmin rights aren't appropriate.
  • This role controls logins for SQL Server.
  • This role can grant access to databases within SQL Server.
  • This role, by itself, cannot define any further security within a database.
  • This is another good role for junior DBAs when sysadmin is too much.
  • Because it is a security related role, membership in it should be carefully restricted, especially in production.

Another role whose name should shout, "Danger!" And indeed this role does shout that for it, too, has very privileged permissions. A member of serveradmin can control the SQL Server configuration and even shutdown SQL Server by issuing the SHUTDOWN command if connected. Because of this, you should rarely see anyone be a member of this role. Typically DBAs control SQL Server configuration and they are usually in the sysadmin fixed server role, which already has such permissions. There are occasions where you might want junior DBAs to have this level of access, but typically you want your SQL Server configurations standardized and changed rarely, and even then, only intentionally. So you'd typically see senior DBAs with such access.
  • This role manages the SQL Server configuration.
  • This is another role I've not seen used in practice very much because typically you want DBAs who are members of sysadmin handing configuration.
  • This is possibly a role you would hand to a junior DBA, but I wouldn't, especially on a production system.

Setupadmin can control linked servers. Again, this is a role you don't see much use of. If you have the need to create linked servers, this typically falls to the DBAs who already have such permissions through the sysadmin role. Therefore, this is another role you check primarily to make sure no one has this level of access.
  • Setup admin basically gives control over linked servers.
  • Again, this is not a role I've seen used in practice.
  • I would limit this sort of configuration change to DBAs who understand the impact, meaning they are already members of the sysadmin role (meaning you don't need this role).

Friday, January 13, 2012

Check how many stored procedure in sql are modified in days.

FROM sys.objects
WHERE type = 'P'
AND DATEDIFF(D,modify_date, GETDATE()) < 10

How Google Works..........?

Marketing Online - Men and Women Use the Internet Differently

When it comes to marketing online, you must understand your consumers. This means learning what they look for, and how they use the internet. This can help you grab their attention and get your marketing message in front of the right audience. 

It's also important to realize that when it comes to online habits of men and women - they differ. I know, surprise! In the past there has been a lag with women when it came to the adoption of the internet that is no longer the case. Truth is, studies show that women under the age of 65 are quicker to use the internet than men. As women we love to use the internet for research, where men prefer to use it as an entertainment tool. 

Do you see how this information can help?
When we review studies that have been done on the different ways those men and women use the internet, we can gain a greater deal of knowledge on how to position our products online.
Let's take a look at what a past study done by Pew Internet and American Life showed, while this study was done in 2011 I still believe much of the knowledge is applicable and can be used today.
Men are more likely to use the internet to:
  • Read the news
  • Buy travel services or make reservations
  • Check sports scores and gather sports information
  • Stay updated on political news
  • Participate in online auctions, such as ebay
  • Write content to publish online
  • Download music
  • Buy and sell stocks, bonds and mutual funds
A Forrester study done in 2007 also showed that on the average men tend to stay online longer and devote more time to online entertainment and researching technical gadgets.
Women use the internet to:
  • Get health beauty  information
  • Read spiritual and religious information
  • Gain access and participate in support group websites
A few other interesting statistics that were provided in a different study done by Burst Media in the beginning of 2009 stated the following:
      • 62.3% of women use the internet as their primary source for information on the products they were considering purchasing.
      • 51.7% of the women studied use the internet as the primary way to keep in touch with their families
As you can see men go online to be entertained and hunt down information, where women tend to go online to gather information that assists them in nurturing, themselves and those around them. Clearly while both men and women generally spend allotments of time online, gender stereotypes are prevalent in what they do with their time online.
Putting it to Use: Think about who your potential customer is online. Is the majority male or female? Can you see how this information can assist you in not only where but how to position your product or service in order to increase the conversions you gain online? How will you use this information in upcoming marketing campaigns?